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Marketing Research Method - Observational techniques


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

In marketing and the social sciences, observational research (or field research) is a social research technique that involves the direct observation of phenomena in their natural setting. This differentiates it from experimental research in which a quasi-artificial environment is created to control for spurious factors, and where at least one of the variables is manipulated as part of the experiment.

In marketing research, the most frequently used types of observational techniques are:

  • Personal observation
    • observing products in use to detect usage patterns and problems
    • observing license plates in store parking lots
    • determining the socio-economic status of shoppers
    • determining the level of package scrutiny
    • determining the time it takes to make a purchase decision
  • Mechanical observation
    • eye-tracking analysis while subjects watch advertisements
    • oculometers - what the subject is looking at
    • pupilometers - how interested is the viewer
    • electronic checkout scanners - records purchase behaviour
    • on-site cameras in stores
  • Nielsen box for tracking television station watching
    • voice pitch meters - measures emotional reactions
    • psychogalvanometer - measures galvanic skin response
  • Audits
    • retail audits to determine the quality of service in stores
    • inventory audits to determine product acceptance
    • shelf space audits
  • Trace Analysis
    • credit card records
    • computer cookie records
    • garbology - looking for traces of purchase patterns in garbage
    • detecting store traffic patterns by observing the wear in the floor (long term) or the dirt on the floor (short term)
    • exposure to advertisements
  • Content analysis
    • observe the content of magazines, television broadcasts, radio broadcasts, or newspapers, either articles, programs, or advertisements

Related Topics
Types of marketing research methods
Quantitative marketing research - Requirements and Procedures
Qualitative marketing research
Marketing Research Method - Experimental techniques


This article is from Wikipedia.org. All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License.